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UNIT-11 CYBER LAW, ETHICS AND ICT TECHNOLOGY

After completing this chapter, the students will be able to:

  • Define Cyber Law and explain its importance in the cyberspace.
  • Define cybercrime and explain the different types of cybercrime.
  • Explain the major aspects of cyber law of Nepal.
  • List the different ethical issues in computing.
  • Define information and communication technology.

Concept: Cyber Law

The internet is the most powerful, global data communication system making it the greatest invention of science because of its wide range of benefits and uses in the world today. It has made information available in a quick and easy manner, publicly accessible and within easy reach. Internet is growing rapidly. Cyberspace is becoming the new preferred environment of the world. With the spontaneous and almost phenomenal growth of cyberspace, new and ticklish issues relating to various legal aspects of cyberspace began cropping up. In response to the absolutely complex and newly emerging legal issues relating to cyberspace, CYBER LAW or the law of Internet came into being.

Cyber law is the area of law that deals with the Internet’s relationship to technology to technology and electronic elements, including computers, hardware and information systems (IS). Cyber law is also known as Cyber Law or Internet Law.

Cyber Laws prevent or reduce large scale damage from cyber criminal activities protecting information access, privacy, communications, intellectual property (IP) and freedom of speech related to the use of the Internet, websites, email, computers, cell phones, software and hardware, such as data storage devices.

Cyber Crime

Cybercrime is one of the fastest growing areas of crime. Cybercrime is the criminal activity done using computers and the internet. These include attacks against computer data and systems, identify theft, internet auction fraud, the penetration of online financial services, as well as the deployment of viruses and various email scams such as phishing. The global nature of the internet has allowed criminals to commit almost any illegal activity anywhere in the world, making it essential for all countries to adapt their domestic offline controls to cover crimes carried out in cyberspace. The use of the internet by terrorists, particularly for recruitment and the incitement of radicalization, poses a serious threat to national and international security.

Expanding your horizons

Computer crime, or Cybercrime, refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Net crime refers to criminal exploitation of the Internet.

Types of Cyber Crime

  • Cyber terrorism

The use of internet based attacks in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the internet, by the means of tools such as computer viruses.

  • Cyber laundering

Electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination.

  • Cyber contraband

Transferring illegal items through the internet (such as encryption technology) that is banned in some locations.

  • Cyber stalking

Expresses or implieds physical threats that creates fear through the use of computer technology such as email, phones, text messages, webcams, websites or videos.

  • Cyber theft

Stealing of financial and/or personal information through the use of computers for making its fraudulent or other illegal use.

  • Hacking

The activity of breaking into a computer system to gain an unauthorized access.

  • Phishing

The act of attempting to acquire sensitive information like usernames, passwords and credit card details by disguising as a trustworthy source.

  • Computer viruses

A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.

  • Identify theft

This is one of the most serious frauds as it involves stealing money and obtaining other benefits through the use of a false identity.

Cyber Law Of Nepal

Cyber law of Nepal commonly known as the Electronic Transaction and Digital Signature Act-Ordinance was enacted in Nepal in 2061 BS (2004). The cyber law in Nepal was formulated after making a thorough discussion of the IT Acts already implemented in other countries. It was formulated mainly to legalize the different trading activities through the global computer network and to give a boost to the e-governance activities. It contains a strong provision of punishment against cybercrimes according to the nature of the crime. The different cybercrimes mentioned in the law include hacking, damage to computer source code, breach of privacy and faking digital signatures. As per the provisions of law, the government is fully authorized to punish cyber criminals-both an individual or an institution with imprisonment and fine.

The major aspects of the act are listed below:

  • Provides a legal framework to facilitate and safeguard electronic transactions in the electronic medium.
  • Provides a detailed provisions for the Controller of Certifying Authorities to regulate Certifying Authorities.
  • Provides punishment to a hacker who:-
  1. Downloads, copies or extracts data from a database without permission of the owner.
  2. Introduce computer virus into any computer or computer network.
  3. Damages programs or data residing in a computer or network or illegally copies them.
  4. Disrupts a computer or network.
  5. Provides legal status for various banking transactions through electronic media, which will be instrumental in boosting economic activities throughout the world via internet.

Ethical Issues in Computing

In the industrialized nations of the world, the “Information Revolution” has significantly altered many aspects in life. Advances in computer technologies have placed tremendous new capabilities in the hands of everyday people. As computer technology gives us wonderful new powers, we are faced with many ethical dilemmas. Computer ethics is a branch of applied ethics which studies and analyzes social and ethical impacts of information technology.

The computer ethics institute in Washington DC, has proposed the ten commandments of computer ethics. They are:

  • Do not use a computer to harm other people.
  • Do not interfere with other people’s computer work.
  • Do not copy or proprietary software for which you have not paid.
  • Do not snoop around in other people’s computer files.
  • Do not use a computer to steal.
  • Do not use a computer to bear false witness.
  • Do not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation.
  • Do not use other people’s intellectual output.
  • Always think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing.
  • Always use a computer in ways that demonstrate consideration and respect for your fellow humans.

Information and Communication Technology

ICT stands for Information and Communication Technology. It plays vital role in this digital era that exists to help individuals and organizations for information exchange effectively and efficiently. ICT is applied area of computer science, electronics, telecommunication, business and various other fields that deal with processing, storing and transmitting of information. Mainly it consists of computer hardware, computer software, multimedia, internet, telecommunication, etc. It is fundamental in many ways as it makes learning much interesting especially for hard topics and bridges distances, for instance, the use of phones and email. ICT also breaks literacy barriers in communication, by use of radio and television. In addition, it provides access to information on jobs and internships and enables research and useful information sharing through the internet. It enables creation of employment opportunities and enhances interaction among peers over long distances. ICT creates entertainment opportunities through music, games, and video and also provides health information, especially on sensitive issues.

Tricky Terms

Cyber law: The area of law that deals with the internet’s relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information systems (IS).

Cyber laundering: Electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination.

Hacking: The activity of breaking into a computer system to gain an unauthorized access.

Computer viruses: A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.

ICT: The study, development and application of computer-based information systems using telephones, televisions, radios, mobiles, computers and computer software to convert, store, process, protect and transmit information.

Let Us Revise

  • The internet is the most powerful, global data communication system making it the greatest invention of science because of its wide range of benefits and uses in the world today.
  • Cyber law is the area of law that deals with the internet’s relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information systems (IS).
  • Cybercrime is criminal activity done using computers and the internet.
  • Cyber laundering is an electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination.
  • Hacking is the activity of breaking into a computer system to gain an unauthorized access.
  • Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire sensitive information like usernames, passwords and credit card details by disguising as a trustworthy source.
  • Cyber law of Nepal commonly known as the Electronic Transaction and Digital Signature Act-Ordinance was enacted in Nepal in 2061 BS (2004).
  • Computer ethics is a branch of applied ethics which studies and analyzes social and ethical impacts of information technology.

Solved Exercises

1.What is a cyber law?

Ans: Cyber law is the area of law that deals with the internet’s relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information systems (IS). Cyber law is also known as Cyber law or Internet law.

2.Define the following terms.

Ans:

Cyber Contraband   =          Transferring illegal items through the internet (such as encryption technology) that is banned in some locations.     
Hacking    =   The activity of breaking into a computer system to gain an unauthorized access.    

3.List any three major aspects of the cyber law of Nepal, 2004.

Ans: The three major aspects of cyber law of Nepal, 2004 (2061 BS) are listed below:

  • Provides a legal framework to facilitate and safeguard electronic transactions in the electronic medium.
  • Provides a detailed provisions for the Controller of Certifying Authorities to regulate Certifying Authorities.
  • Provides provision of an Appellate Judicial body to listen to complaints, cases and cyber-related crime.

4. What is computer ethics? What are the ten commandments of computer ethics proposed by the computer Ethics institute in Washington DC?

Ans: Computer ethics is a branch of applied ethics which studies and analyzes social and ethical impacts of information technology. The computer ethics institute in Washington DC, proposed the ten commandments of computer ethics. They are:

  • Do not use a computer to harm other people.
  • Do not interfere with other people’s computer work.
  • Do not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.
  • Do not snoop around in other people’s computer files.
  • Do not use a computer to steal.
  • Do not use a computer to bear false witness.
  • Do not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation.
  • Do not use other people’s intellectual output.
  • Always think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing.
  • Always use a computer in ways that demonstrate consideration and respect for your fellow humans.

Chapter Review

1.State whether the following statements are true or false.

  1. Cyber laws prevent or reduce large scale damage from cybercriminal activities by protecting information access, privacy, communications, intellectual property (IP)and freedom of speech related to the use of the Internet, websites, email, computers, cell phones, software and hardware, such as data storage devices. (True)
  2. Cyber Contraband is an electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination. (False)
  3. Hacking is the activity of breaking into a computer system to gain an unauthorized access.( True)
  4. Cyber law of Nepal commonly known as the Electronic Transaction and digital Signature Act-Ordinance was enacted in Nepal in 2061 BS (2004). (True)
  5. ICT creates entertainment opportunities through music, games, and video and also provides health information, especially on sensitive issues. (True)

2. Match the following:

Group A                          Group B

  • ICT = The study, development and application of computer-based information systems using telephones, televisions, radios, mobiles, computers and computer software to convert, store, process, protect and transmit information.
  • Hacking= The activity of breaking into a computer system to gain an unauthorized access.
  • Computer viruses= A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.
  • Cyber laundering= Electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination.
  • Cyber law= The area of law that deals with the Internet’s relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information systems (IS).

3. Select the best answers from the list of choices.

……………………is the area of law that deals with the Internet’s relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information systems (IS).

  1. cybercrime
  2. Cyber law
  3. None of the above

Electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination is….. 

  1. Cyber laundering
  2. Cyber theft
  3. Hacking

Electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination is….

  1. Cyber stalking
  2. Cyber laundering
  3. Viruses

The act of attempting to acquire sensitive information like usernames, passwords and credit card details by disguising as a trustworthy source is……..

  1. Hacking
  2. Phishing
  3. Viruses

Cyber law of Nepal commonly known as the Electronic Transaction and Digital Signature Act Ordinance was enacted in Nepal in…..

  1. 2061 BS
  2. 2062 BS
  3. 2063 BS

4.Answer the following questions.

a.What is a computer crime?

Ans: Computer crime is the criminal activity done using computers and the internet

b. Define the following terms.

i. Cyber laundering

Ans: The electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination is cyber laundering.

ii. Hacking

Ans: Hacking is the activity of breaking into a computer system to gain an unauthorized access.

iii. Computer virus

Ans: Computer virus is a program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.

c.What is cyber law? State any five major aspects of the cyber law of Nepal, 2004

Ans: Cyber law is the area that deals with the internet’s relationship to technological and electronic elements, including computers, software, hardware and information systems (IS). Any five major aspects of the cyber law of Nepal, 2004 are:

  1. Provides a legal framework to facilitate and safeguard electronic transactions in the electronic medium.
  2. Provides a detailed provisions for the Controller of Certifying Authorities to regulate Certifying Authorities.
  3. Provides provision of an Appellate Judicial body to listen complaints, cases and cyber related crime.
  4. Provides punishment to a hacker who
  5. Downloads, copies or extracts data from a database without permission of the owner.

d. What do you understand by the term computer ethics?

Ans: Computer ethics is a branch of applied ethics which studies and analyzes social and ethical impacts of information technology.

e. What are the ten commandments of computer ethics?

Ans: Any ten commandments of computer ethics are:-

  1. Do not use a computer to harm other people.
  2. Do not interfere with other people’s computer work.
  3. Do not copy or proprietary software for which you have not paid.
  4. Do not snoop around in other people’s computer files.
  5. Do not use a computer to steal.
  6. Do not use a computer to bear false witness.
  7. Do not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation.
  8. Do not use other people’s intellectual output.
  9. Always think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing.
  10. Always use a computer in ways that demonstrate consideration and respect for your fellow humans.

f. What is Information and Communication Technology?

Ans: Information and Communication Technology is the  study, development and application of computer-based information systems using telephones, televisions, radios, mobiles, computers and computer software to convert, store, process, protect and transmit information.

g. State any three advantages of Information and Communication Technology.

Ans: Any three advantages of Information and Communication Technology are:

  1. It makes learning much interesting especially for hard topics and bridge distances.
  2. It provides access to information on jobs and internships.
  3. It enhances creation of employment opportunities and enhances interaction among peers over long distances.
Made by: Reeti Bhurtel
Sudikshya Tripathi  

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