Contemporary Technology


Contemporary technology refers to the belonging to the same age, living or occurring in the same period of time existing or occurring at the present time, conforming to modern or current ideas in cloud computing, artificial intelligence, Virtual Reality e-governance, mobile computing and Internet of things.

Cloud Computing

The concept of cloud is the facility provided by the remote server for retrieving the computing software, saving and retrieving the documents any were from the world by using the internet. It is the practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer is called the cloud computing It is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user. The term is generally used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet. Large clouds, predominant today, often have functions distributed over multiple locations from central servers. Cloud providers typically use a “pay as-you-go” model, which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud pricing models. It is a system in which you pay for a service before you use it, and you cannot use more than you have paid for.

Cloud Computing – Network Encyclopedia

Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:

  1. By using cloud computing organizations enhance their business, as it facilitates with supplying adding or expanding technological infrastructure resources.
  2. Users do not have to spend on installing.
  3. The operational expenditure is reduced as public-cloud delivery model converts capital expenditures (e.g., buying servers ) to operational expenditure.
  4. Users are facilitates in such a way are that they can use the cloud computing system from any where from the world, any type of computer or hand held computer through Internet.
  5. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user’s computer and can be accessed from different places (e.g., different work locations, while traveling, etc.).
  6. Cloud computing enables sharing of resources and costs across a large group of users.
  7. Cloud computing are more reliable as performance is monitored by IT experts from the service provider.
  8. Multiple users are use the cloud computing so, it helps in productivity as productivity increases when multiple users can work on the same data at the same time, rather than waiting for it to be saved and emailed.
  9. Improved Security due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources but there are concerns that users can loss of control over certain sensitive data.

Advantages of cloud computing:

  • Less Costs
  • Availability
  • Flexibility in Capacity
  • All over functioning
  • Automated updates on software
  • Security
  • Carbon footprint
  • Enhance collaboration
  • Control on the documents
  • Easily manage.

Disadvantages of cloud computing:

  • Network Connection Dependency
  • Limited Features
  • Loss of Control
  • Security
  • Technical Issues

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits a distinguish quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person, associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving. The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalize(logical reason) and take actions that have the best chance of achieving a specific goal. Al is continuously evolving to benefit many different industries. Machines are wired using a cross-disciplinary approach based in mathematics, computer science, linguistics, psychology, and more.

What Is The Importance Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence includes computers that play chess, expert systems, speech recognition and machine vision and self-driving cars. Each of these machines must weigh the consequences of any action they take, as each action will impact the result. In chess, the result is winning the game. For self-driving cars, the computer system must account for all external data and compute it to act in a way that prevents a collision.

Artificial intelligence also has applications in the financial industry, where it is used to detect and flag activity in banking and finance such as unusual debit card usage and large account deposits-all of which help a bank’s fraud department etc.

Categorization of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

a. Weak artificial intelligence embodies a system designed to carry out one job. Weak Al systems include video games such as the chess example from above and personal assistants such as Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’s Siri. You ask the assistant a question, it answers it for you.

b. Strong artificial intelligence systems are systems that carry on the tasks considered to be human-like. These tend to be more complex and complicated systems. They are programmed to handle situations in which they may be required to problem solve without having a person intervene. These kinds of systems can be found in applications like self-driving cars or in hospital operating rooms.

Advantages of AI

1) If the program in the Al machine is correct, Al would have a low error rate compared to humans. They would have incredible precision, accuracy, and speed

2) They won’t be affected by hostile environments, thus able to complete dangerous tasks, explore in space, and endure problems that would injure or kill us. This can even mean mining and digging fuels that would otherwise be hostile for humans.

3) Replace humans in repetitive, tedious tasks and in many laborious places of work.

4) Predict what a user will type, ask, search, and do. They can easily act as assistants and can recommend or direct various actions. An example of this can be found in the smartphone.

5) Can detect fraud in card-based systems and possibly other systems in the future.

6) Organized and manages records.

7) Interact with humans for entertainment or a task as avatars or robots. —-An example of this is Al for playing many videogames. —Robotic pets can interact with humans. Can help depression and inactivity.

8) They can think logically without emotions making rational decisions with less or no mistakes.

9) Can assess people. This can be for medical purposes, such as health risks and emotional state. Can simulate medical procedures and give info on side effects. -Robotic radiosurgery and other types of surgery in the future can achieve precision that humans can’t.

10) They don’t need to sleep, rest, take breaks, or get entertained, as they don’t get bored or tired.

Disadvantages of AL

1) It cost a lot of money and time to build, rebuild, and repair Robotic repair can occur to reduce time and humans needing to fix it but that’ll cost more money and resources

2) It’s questionable is it ethically and morally correct to have android human-like robots, or recreate intelligence, a gift of nature that shouldn’t be recreated? This is a discussion about Al that’s popular in the days

3) Storage is expansive, but access and retrieval may not lead to connections in memory as well as humans could. -They can learn and get better with tasks if coded to, but it’s questionable as to if this can ever become as good as humans can do such. -They cannot work outside of what they were programmed for. -They could never or at least, seemingly never with our technological perceptions, receive creativity that humans have. -Robots have no heart this can prevent sympathizing with emotions for human contact, such as in being nurses. This can also reduce wisdom can understanding. Non-living thing has no experience of pain. – This can prevent common sense occurring. Even if coded with commonsense and to learn, it seems hard for them to get as much common sense that humans could.

4) Robots, with them replacing jobs, can lead to severe unemployment, unless if humans can fix the unemployment with jobs Al can’t do or severely change the government to communism.

5) As seen partially with smartphones and other technology already, humans can become too dependent on Al and lose their mental capacities. Machines can easily lead to destruction, if put in the wrong hands. That is, at least a fear of many humans. Al as robots can succeed humans, dominating us.

Virtual Reality

That looks real but it is not true is the virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world.

It draws on multiple senses, using visuals audio, touch and even scent, to help the participant become emotionally invested Applications of virtual reality can include For entertainment and educational purposes (i.e. medical military training) Other. distinct types of VR style technology includes augmented reality and mixed reality.

Currently standard virtual reality systems use either virtual reality headsets or multi projected environments to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations rule that simulate a user’s physical presence in a virtual environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to look around the artificial world, move around in It and interact with virtual features or items. The effect is commonly created by VR headsets consisting of a head-mounted display with a small screen in front of the eyes, but can also be created through specially designed rooms with multiple large screens. Virtual reality typically incorporates auditory and video feedback, but may also allow other types of sensory and force feedback through haptic technology.

Haptic Technology – Haptic technology, also known kinaesthetic or Kinesthetic communication or 3D touch, refers to any technology that can create an experience of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user.

Tech Explained: Virtual Reality - Springwise

Advantage of Virtual Reality

  • Variety of Learning Styles.
  • Promote Repetition and Retention.
  • Eliminating Risk and Safety Concerns.
  • Reducing Training Budget and Providing Scalability.

Disadvantages of Using Virtual Reality in the Classroom

  • Makes Weaken the Human Connections
  • Lack of Flexibility
  • Functionality Issues
  • Addiction to the Virtual World
  • Quite Expensive


The implementation of ICT by the government to accomplish his job in the nation is the e-governance. The ICT stands for Information and Communication Technology Government uses paperless activities using information technology. Likewise, the central E-Governance is to make government services efficient, accessible and convenient. The use of E-governance is to overcome the boundaries from the traditional paper-based system. It is the enhancement of current government. And it also helps to provide better government services to the citizen. Hence, E-governance delivers SMART government

The E-Governance is not only a website on the internet. E-governance is providing governmental services that are accessible through the internet. It refers to any government process or function that is out online in digital form.  Similarly, E Governance is the Involvement of digital democracy, online service delivery. Likewise, It is also as online citizen participation. An ordinary citizen government facility through the internet. E-governance is the network that includes government, public, and business organizations. There are four types of e-governances. They are:

1 Government-to-Citizen(G2C)

The Government-to-citizen refers to the government services that are acce by the people. And Most of the government services fall under G2C. Lik the primary goal of Government-to-citizen is to provide facilities to the cit It helps the ordinary people to reduce the time and cost to conduct a transa A citizen can have access to the services anytime from anywhere. It focuses geographic land barriers.

2. Government-to-business (G2B)

The Government to business is the exchange of services between Government and Business organizations. It is efficient for both government and business organizations. G2B provides access to relevant forms needed to comply. The G2B also consists many services exchanged between business sectors and government.

3. Government-to-Government (G2G)

The Government-to-Government refers to the interaction between different government department, organizations, and agencies. This increases efficiency of government processes. In G2G, government agencies can share the same database using online communication. The government departments can work together. This service can increase international diplomacy and relations.

4. Government-to-Employee (G2E)

The Government-to-Employee is the internal part of G2G sector. Furthermore, G2E alms to bring employees together and create knowledge sharing.

Similarly, G2E provides online facilities to the employees. Likewise, applying for leave, reviewing salary payment record.

Mobile Computing

Mobile Computing is a technology that allows transmission of data, voice and video Via a computer or any other wireless enabled device without having to be connected to a fixed physical link. The main concept involves,

  • Mobile communication
  • Mobile hardware
  • Mobile software

Mobile communication

The mobile communication refers to the infrastructure put in place to ensure that seamless (all-in-one) and reliable communication goes on. These would include devices such as protocols; services, bandwidth and portals necessary to facilitate and support the stated services. The data format is also defined at this stage. This ensures that there is no collision with other existing systems which offer the same service. Since the media is unguided/unbounded, the overlapping infrastructure is basically radio wave oriented .That is, the signals are carried over the air to intended devices that can receive and sending similar kinds of signals.

Mobile Computing - Brief Overview - Tutorialspoint

Mobile Hardware

Mobile hardware are small and wireless so they are easy to take with where you go, either keeping in your bag or in your pocket. Mobile hardware includes mobile devices or device components that receive or access the services of mobility. They would range from portable laptops, smartphones, tablet Pc’s, Personal Digital Assistants. These devices will have a receptor medium that is capable of sending and receiving signals. These devices are configured to operate in full-duplex, whereby they can send and receive signals at the same time. They don’t have to wait until one device has finished communicating for the other device to initiate communications. Above mentioned devices use an existing and established network to operate on. In most cases, it would be a wireless network.

Mobile software

Mobile software is the actual program that runs on the mobile hardware. It deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications. This is the engine of the mobile device. In other terms, it is the operating system of the appliance. It’s the essential component that operates the mobile device. Since portability is the main factor, this type of computing ensures that users are not tied or pinned to a single physical location but are able to operate from anywhere. It incorporates all aspects of wireless communications.

Internet of Things (IOT)

The things or devices that are related with internet are the Internet of things. The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects things that are embedded with sensors, software and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet. For example a smart phone captures the internet so, mobile is an Internet of thing. These devices range from ordinary household objects to sophisticated industrial tools. With more than 7 billion connected loT devices today, experts are expecting this number to grow to 10 billion by 2020 and 22 billion by 2025. With idea of IoT several different technologies have made it practical. The product should be user-friendly and affordable for the people.

a. Access to low-cost, low-power sensor technology – Affordable and reliable sensors are making loT technology possible for more manufacturers.

b. Connectivity – A host of network protocols for the internet has made it easy to connect sensors to the cloud and to other “things” for efficient data transfer.

c. Cloud computing platforms – The increase in the availability of cloud platforms enable both businesses and consumers to access the infrastructure they need to scale up without having to manage it all.

d. Machine learning and analytics – With advances in machine learning and analytics, along with access to varied and vast amounts of data stored in the cloud, businesses can gather insights faster and more easily. The emergence of these linked technologies continues to push the boundaries of loT, and the data produced by loT also feeds these technologies.

e. Conversational artificial intelligence (AI) – Advances in neural networks have brought natural language processing (NLP) to loT devices (such as digital personal assistants Alexa, Cortana, and Siri) and made them appealing, affordable, and viable for home use.

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